Nabteb Expo questions and answer, Nabteb Agriculture science Expo, Nabteb Agric Expo, Nabteb Expo 2023
NABTEB AGRIC. SCIENCE ANSWERS
NABTEB AGRIC OBJ
*(Answer FIVE Questions Only)*
(PIK ANY FIVE)
(i) Farm records when properly kept, provide the farmer with valuable information for future budgeting and planning of the farm
(ii) Details of farm records are used for taxation/tax assessment
(iii) Farm records can enable the farmer to obtain loans from banks
(iv) It is used for auditing the farm
(v) The records will enable the farmer to know whether his farm is progressing from one year to another
(vi) It help to detect fraudulent practices on the farm
(vii) Enable farmers to compare one enterprise to another on the same farm
(viii) It shows the history of business transactions of the farm.
(i) Poor nutrition: Inadequate or imbalanced diet can weaken the immune system of farm animals, making them more susceptible to diseases.
(ii) Stress: Stressful conditions, such as overcrowding, transportation, extreme temperatures, or sudden changes in environment, can compromise the immune system and increase the risk of diseases in farm animals.
(iii) Lack of biosecurity: Poor biosecurity measures, including inadequate quarantine procedures, lack of hygiene practices, and exposure to infected animals or contaminated equipment, can facilitate the spread of diseases among farm animals.
(iv) Genetic susceptibility: Some farm animal breeds or genetic lines may have inherent weaknesses or susceptibility to certain diseases, making them more prone to infections or health issues.
(v) Environmental factors: Unfavorable environmental conditions, such as high humidity, poor ventilation, or exposure to pollutants, can contribute to the development and spread of diseases among farm animals.
(i) Gravitational water:
(ii) Capillary water
(iii) Hygroscopic water
(i) Access to machinery: Ensuring farmers have access to a wide range of appropriate and affordable agricultural machinery, including tractors, harvesters, and irrigation equipment, can improve mechanization levels.
(ii) Training and capacity building: Providing training programs and technical support to farmers on the operation, maintenance, and repair of agricultural machinery can enhance their skills and knowledge in utilizing mechanization effectively.
(iii) Financial support: Offering financial incentives, subsidies, or loans specifically for the acquisition of agricultural machinery can help reduce the financial burden on farmers and encourage investment in mechanization.
(iv) Infrastructure development: Improving rural infrastructure, such as roads, irrigation systems, and power supply, can facilitate the use of machinery in agricultural operations and increase productivity.
(v) Research and development: Investing in research and development of new and innovative agricultural machinery, as well as adapting existing machinery to local conditions, can lead to the development of more efficient and sustainable mechanization technologies.
(i) Selective exploration: Selective exploration refers to the process of carefully assessing and evaluating a specific area or resource to determine its potential value or suitability for a particular purpose. It involves collecting and analyzing data, conducting surveys or experiments, and making informed decisions based on the findings. Selective exploration is commonly used in various fields, including mining, agriculture, and environmental research, to identify and exploit valuable resources while minimizing negative impacts.
(ii) Deforestation: Deforestation is the deliberate or accidental removal of forests or significant portions of forested land. It involves the clearing, logging, or burning of trees and vegetation, resulting in the permanent loss of forest cover. Deforestation can occur due to various reasons, such as agriculture expansion, urbanization, logging for timber or fuel, and infrastructure development. It has significant environmental consequences, including habitat destruction, loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, climate change, and disruption of local ecosystems.
(iii) Taungya system: The Taungya system is an agroforestry practice where temporary food crops are cultivated in the early stages of forest plantation establishment. It involves planting tree seedlings in combination with food crops, such as maize, beans, or vegetables, to provide income and sustenance for farmers while the trees are growing. The food crops are cultivated for a limited period until the tree canopy closes and shades the understory, after which the trees become the primary focus.
(i) Reduced yield: Pests and diseases can cause significant damage to crops, leading to reduced yield or complete crop failure. They can feed on plant tissues, suck sap, or transmit pathogens, resulting in stunted growth, wilting, leaf damage, or fruit deformities.
(ii) Quality deterioration: Pests and diseases can affect the quality of harvested crops. They can cause physical damage, discoloration, or introduce toxins that render the produce unmarketable or lower its value.
(iii) Increased production costs: Managing and controlling pests and diseases often require additional inputs, such as pesticides, fungicides, or labor, which can increase production costs for farmers. Regular monitoring, prevention, and treatment measures are necessary to minimize losses.
(iv) Disruption of market access: Pests and diseases can lead to trade restrictions or limitations on the movement of crops due to quarantine regulations. Infested or infected produce may be rejected by domestic or international markets, affecting the income and market access for farmers.
(v) Ecological imbalances: Pests and diseases can disrupt the natural balance of ecosystems. In the absence of natural predators or controls, pest populations can increase rapidly, leading to outbreaks that affect not only crops but also other beneficial organisms in the environment.
(i) Improved seed varieties: Planting improved seed varieties that are specifically bred or selected for higher yields, disease resistance, or tolerance to environmental conditions can significantly enhance crop productivity. These seeds often exhibit better traits, such as improved yield potential, resistance to pests and diseases, or better adaptation to specific growing conditions.
(ii) Soil fertility management: Implementing appropriate soil fertility management practices, such as balanced nutrient application, organic matter incorporation, and soil conservation measures, can improve the nutrient content and structure of the soil. This enhances the availability of essential nutrients for crops, promotes healthy plant growth, and increases overall productivity.
(iii) Irrigation and water management: Efficient irrigation practices, including the use of drip irrigation, sprinkler systems, or water-saving techniques, can ensure optimal water supply to crops. Adequate water availability at critical growth stages promotes better crop development, reduces water stress, and improves productivity.
(iv) Integrated pest and disease management: Implementing integrated pest and disease management strategies, which combine cultural, biological, and chemical control methods, can help minimize crop losses. It promotes a balanced and sustainable approach to pest and disease control while minimizing negative impacts on the environment and human health.
Floriculture is the branch of horticulture that focuses on the cultivation and management of flowers and ornamental plants for commercial purposes. It involves the production of flowers, flowering plants, foliage plants, and other ornamental crops, primarily for the floral industry and decorative purposes.
(i) Ornamental plants are extensively used in landscaping to enhance the aesthetic appeal of gardens, parks, public spaces, and residential areas.
(ii) Ornamental plants are commonly used as indoor plants for decorating homes, offices, hotels, and other indoor spaces.
(iii) Many ornamental plants are cultivated for their flowers, which are used in the floral industry for making bouquets, floral arrangements, wreaths, and other decorative displays.
(iv) Some ornamental plants possess medicinal properties and are used in traditional or alternative medicine.
(v) Ornamental plants play a role in conserving biodiversity by providing habitats and food sources for beneficial insects, birds, and other wildlife.
Weeds are unwanted plants that grow in cultivated areas, gardens, or natural ecosystems. They are characterized by their ability to compete with desirable plants for resources, such as water, nutrients, light, and space. Weeds can negatively impact crop yields, reduce the quality of harvested produce, and disrupt ecosystem balance.
(i) Crop yield losses: Weeds compete with crops for essential resources, such as water, nutrients, and sunlight. Their presence can significantly reduce crop yields and result in economic losses for farmers.
(ii) Increased production costs: Managing and controlling weeds require additional labor, machinery, and herbicides, leading to increased production costs for farmers. Weed control measures add to the overall expenses of agricultural operations.
(iii) Impacts on quality and marketability: Weeds can contaminate harvested crops, reduce their quality, and make them less marketable. Weedy plants may taint or damage produce, affecting its appearance, taste, or shelf life, and ultimately impacting its economic value.
(iv) Impact on livestock and forage production: Weeds can invade pastures and grazing lands, competing with desirable forage plants. They can reduce the available forage, decrease the nutritional value of feed, and impact livestock production by limiting the quantity and quality of grazing resources.
(v) Ecological and environmental impacts: Weeds can disrupt natural ecosystems, outcompeting native plants, and reducing biodiversity. They can negatively affect the habitat and food sources for wildlife, impact water quality, and interfere with the functioning of natural ecosystems.
(i) The government plays a crucial role in formulating agricultural policies and regulations to guide the development of the agricultural sector.
(ii) The government invests in the development of agricultural infrastructure, such as irrigation systems, rural roads, storage facilities, and market infrastructure.
(iii) Governments often fund agricultural research institutions and initiatives to drive innovation, improve productivity, and address challenges faced by farmers.
(iv) Governments provide financial support to farmers in the form of subsidies, loans, grants, or insurance programs which aim to promote agricultural development, increase productivity, support rural livelihoods, and ensure food security.
Aquaculture refers to the controlled cultivation or farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants, in freshwater, brackish water, or marine environments. It involves the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of aquatic species under controlled conditions for commercial, recreational, or conservation purposes.
(i) Pollination: Bees are important pollinators that play a crucial role in the pollination of many flowering plants, including crops. Bee-keeping helps ensure pollination services, leading to increased crop yields, improved quality of fruits and seeds, and enhanced biodiversity in ecosystems.
(ii) Honey production: Bee-keeping is primarily practiced for honey production. Honey is a valuable natural sweetener with various health benefits and culinary uses. Beekeepers can harvest honey from managed beehives and sell it commercially, providing an additional source of income.
(iii) Beeswax and other hive products: Bee-keeping also yields beeswax, propolis, royal jelly, and pollen, which have various applications. Beeswax is used in candle-making, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, while propolis has antimicrobial properties and can be used in natural remedies. Royal jelly and pollen are utilized in nutritional supplements.
(iv) Sustainable agriculture: By promoting pollination, bee-keeping contributes to sustainable agriculture. It reduces the reliance on synthetic pesticides, enhances biodiversity, and supports the natural ecological balance in agricultural ecosystems.
(v) Conservation and ecosystem services: Bee-keeping helps conserve bee populations and supports the ecological services provided by bees. Bees and other pollinators are essential for the reproduction of many wild plants and the maintenance of healthy ecosystems.
(i) Beekeepers should wear appropriate safety equipment, including bee suits, veils, gloves, and sturdy footwear.
(ii) Beehives should be placed in suitable locations that provide adequate forage, shelter, and protection from extreme weather conditions.
(iii) Beekeepers should regularly inspect the hives to monitor the health of the colonies, identify potential issues or diseases, and take necessary preventive or corrective measures.
(i) Lack of collateral: Many farmers, especially small-scale or resource-limited farmers, may not possess adequate collateral to secure agricultural loans. Financial institutions often require collateral as security, which can be challenging for farmers who may not own valuable assets or have formal property titles.
(ii) Limited access to credit: Farmers in remote or rural areas may face limited access to formal financial institutions offering agricultural loans. Banks and lending institutions may be less inclined to provide loans to farmers due to perceived risks associated with agriculture, uncertain market conditions, or lack of credit history.
(iii) High interest rates: Agricultural loans often come with higher interest rates compared to other sectors. This can pose a financial burden for farmers, particularly if they experience low crop yields, market fluctuations, or other challenges that affect their ability to generate income and repay the loan.
(i) Seining: Seining involves using a net, called a seine net, to encircle and capture fish in the pond.
(ii) Netting or scoop net method: Netting or scoop net method involves using a handheld net, typically with a long handle, to scoop out fish from the pond.
(i) Salvage value:
The salvage value is the estimated residual value of the plough at the end of its useful life. In this case, the plough was sold off in 2014 for N100,000. Therefore, the salvage value is N100,000.
(ii) Annual Depreciation:
To calculate the annual depreciation, we need to determine the useful life of the plough, which is 4 years in this case.
Annual Depreciation = (Initial Cost – Salvage Value) / Useful Life
= (N500,000 – N100,000) / 4
= N400,000 / 4
The annual depreciation of the plough is N100,000.
(iii) Total Depreciation:
To calculate the total depreciation, we need to multiply the annual depreciation by the number of years the plough was in use.
Total Depreciation = Annual Depreciation x Number of Years
= N100,000 x 4
The total depreciation of the plough is N400,000.
A farm account refers to a systematic record-keeping system that tracks and summarizes financial transactions related to farming activities. It helps farmers monitor income, expenses, assets, and liabilities to assess the financial performance and health of the farm enterprise.
(i) Cash analysis account
(ii) Sales account
(iii) Purchase account
(i) Total Station: A total station is an electronic surveying instrument that integrates an electronic theodolite, distance meter, and data processing capabilities.
(ii) Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Receivers: GNSS receivers, such as GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, use satellite signals to determine precise locations on the Earth’s surface.
(iii) Leveling Instruments: Leveling instruments, such as automatic levels or digital levels, are used to measure height differences or elevations.
(iv) Theodolite: A theodolite is an optical instrument used for measuring horizontal and vertical angles in surveying.
A crop pest refers to any organism that can cause damage, injury, or economic losses to crops. These pests can be insects, mites, pathogens (disease-causing microorganisms), weeds, rodents, or other animals that negatively affect the growth, development, and productivity of cultivated plants.
(i) Insect pests
(ii) Non-insect pests
(i) Chewing pests: Chewing pests are insects or organisms that have mouthparts designed for biting and chewing plant tissues. Examples of chewing pests include caterpillars, grasshoppers, beetles, and snails. They cause damage by consuming leaves, stems, fruits, or roots of plants.
(ii) Sucking pests: Sucking pests are insects or organisms that have specialized mouthparts adapted for piercing plant tissues and sucking sap. Aphids, mealybugs, whiteflies, and certain types of bugs are examples of sucking pests. They feed on plant sap, depriving plants of nutrients, and may also transmit diseases.
(iii) Boring pests: Boring pests are insects or organisms that bore into plant tissues, such as stems, trunks, or fruits. Common examples of boring pests include borers, such as the corn borer or apple borer, and weevils. Boring pests can cause extensive damage by creating tunnels and galleries, weakening the plant’s structure and potentially leading to plant death.
(i) Cultural control
(ii) Biological control
(iii) Chemical control
(iv) Physical control