NABTEB ANIMAL SCIENCE*
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Limited access to advanced equipment and technology.
(ii) Inadequate funding and financial resources.
(iii) Limited knowledge of regulations and permits required to operate a farm.
(iv) Competing with large scale commercial farms.
(v) Treatment of animal diseases and illnesses.
(vi) Sustainability constraints i.e. weather or climate change.
(vii) Resource and land availability.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Build relationships with local farmers or agribusinesses that have access to cutting-edge equipment or technology.
(ii) Seek out opportunities for grants and loans and explore alternative funding models such as partnerships.
(iii) Research and comply with all relevant regulations at all levels of government.
(iv) Focus on developing a niche market or specialty product that sets your farm apart from larger producing farms.
(v) Invest in education around animal health and employ professional veterinary assistance.
(vi) Experiment with innovative farming practices or invest in off-site insurance coverage for weather- or climate-related disruptions.
(vii) Make the most of available land and resources by implementing sustainable farming practices.
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Sheep can produce more revenue through wool production.
(ii) Sheep are generally easier to handle and care for than goats.
(iii) Sheep are more resistant to parasites than goats.
(iv) Sheep milk is higher in milk fat content making it ideal for cheese production.
(v) Sheep are able to graze and forage on rough terrain as compared to goats.
(vi) Lamb meat has a mild taste as compared to goat meat making it more palatable to consumers.
(vii) Wool production is a more consistent year-round product than goat milk which may fluctuate based on the season.
(viii) Sheep require less water intake as compared to goats making them more viable in dry areas.
Mutation is a process that causes a change in the DNA sequence of an organism. These changes can either result in a beneficial or harmful effect on the organism.
(PICK ANY TWO)
(i) Random or spontaneous mutations that occur naturally during DNA replication
(ii) Exposure to mutagens like radiation
(iii) Environmental factors like temperature chemicals and viruses
(iv) Inbreeding or the mating of closely related animals
(v) Hybridization or the crossing of different breeds or species
(vi) Genetic engineering or the manipulation of genetic material through scientific methods
The genotype and phenotype ratio in the second filial generation (F2) for the mating of a black goat (TT) against a white goat (tt) as male and female respectively will be:
– Genotypic ratio: 1 TT : 2 Tt : 1 tt
– Phenotypic ratio: 3 black : 1 white
(i) Phenotypic selection: selecting animals based on measurable physical traits
(ii) Progeny testing: evaluating offspring for desirable traits and selecting animals based on offspring performance
(iii) Genotypic selection: selecting animals based on their genetic makeup
(iv) Index selection: selecting animals based on a combination of phenotypic and genetic traits to improve overall performance.
Balanced ration refers to a diet that meets all the nutritional requirements of the animal in the right quantities and proportions. It includes the optimal amounts of protein carbohydrates vitamins minerals and water needed for the animal’s growth milk production or meat production.
(i) The bones are collected from slaughterhouses or meat processing plants.
(ii) The bones are then cleaned to remove any adhering tissue or fat.
(iii) After cleaning the bones are boiled to soften them and remove the remaining meat with a high-pressure machine.
(iv) The softened bones are then crushed into small pieces or ground into a fine powder.
(i) The blood is collected during the slaughtering process.
(ii) The blood is then centrifuged to remove any clots and to separate it from other fluids.
(iii) The liquid blood is then dried using a spray dryer or a drum dryer.
(iv) The dried blood is then ground into a fine powder.
(i) The fish are caught and cleaned at sea or at the processing plant.
(ii) The cleaned fish are cooked by steam to coagulate the proteins and release the oil.
(iii) The cooked fish are pressed to separate the liquid and oil from the solid parts.
(iv) The solid parts are dried using a direct or indirect dryer.
(v) The dried solids are ground into a fine powder.
COTTON SEED MEAL
(i) The cottonseeds are separated from the cotton fiber during ginning.
(ii) The seeds are then de-linted to remove the remaining fiber.
(iii) The de-linted seeds are roasted to inactivate any anti-nutritional factors.
(iv) The roasted seeds are then separated into two parts by using a mechanical separator.
(v) The kernel part is then ground into a fine powder.