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2023 NECO HISTORY ANSWERS
(i) British interests in the West African palm oil trade: The British had a strong economic interest in palm oil which was a valuable commodity at the time. Lagos situated in modern-day Nigeria was a major palm oil trading center. The British desired to establish control or influence over this trade to ensure their dominance in the global market.
(ii) The disruption of British trade and influence: The King of Lagos Oba Kosoko had been exerting his authority over British subjects and interfering with British trade. This included several instances of capturing British ships and detaining their crews. These actions were seen as threats to British commercial interests and their imperial prestige leading to a desire for retaliation.
(iii) Slave trade suppression: The British government had been actively working to suppress the transatlantic slave trade which was still prevalent in West Africa. Lagos was known to be involved in the illegal slave trade and the British viewed securing control over the region as a means to weaken and dismantle this trade.
(iv) Humanitarian concerns: Reports of human rights abuses and the mistreatment of captured slaves in Lagos further motivated the British to take action. Humanitarian sentiment combined with the desire to eliminate the slave trade provided a moral justification for the bombardment.
(v) Expansion of British influence: The bombardment of Lagos aimed to enforce British dominance and control over the region. It aligned with broader objectives of expanding the British empire and establishing colonial authority over parts of Africa.
(i) Demographic Disruption: Nigeria was one of the major sources of slaves during the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Millions of Nigerians were captured and forcibly transported to the Americas resulting in a significant loss of population. This led to a demographic imbalance with certain regions experiencing a decline in population and a disruption in social structures.
(ii) Economic Disruption: The slave trade had a detrimental impact on Nigeria’s economy. Many able-bodied men and women were captured and sold resulting in a labor shortage. This in turn affected agricultural production trade and economic development. It also resulted in the loss of skilled craftsmen leading to a decline in local industries.
(iii) Sociocultural Effects: The slave trade had a profound sociocultural impact on Nigeria. Communities were disrupted and torn apart as families and individuals were captured and sold. The loss of individuals with valuable skills and knowledge also had long-lasting consequences as traditional knowledge and cultural practices were eroded.
(iv) Political Instability: The slave trade contributed to political instability in Nigeria. The capture and export of slaves led to power struggles and conflicts between various ethnic groups seeking to control and exploit the slave trade routes. This often resulted in wars and unrest further destabilizing the region.
(v) Long-Term Effects: The trans-Atlantic slave trade had long-term effects on Nigeria. It created a legacy of inequality and discrimination based on race and caste. The trade contributed to racial hierarchies and the development of a stratified society where certain ethnic groups were considered superior or inferior based on their connection to the slave trade.
El-Kanemi also known as Muhammad al-Amin al-Kanemi was a prominent leader who made significant contributions to Borno in the 19th century in Nigeria. He was the founder and ruler of the Islamic state of Kanem-Borno which was one of the largest and most powerful states in West Africa during his time.
One of El-Kanemi’s major contributions was the consolidation and expansion of the Kanem-Borno Empire. He implemented effective administrative and military reforms strengthening the state’s governance and military capabilities. This allowed the empire to withstand numerous invasions and external pressures ensuring its territorial integrity and stability.
El-Kanemi was also a fervent promoter of Islamic teachings and principles. He encouraged the spread of Islam throughout the empire establishing Islamic schools mosques and religious institutions. This led to the widespread adoption of Islam by the people of Borno transforming the region into a center of Islamic learning and scholarship.
Furthermore El-Kanemi played a crucial role in promoting trade and commerce in Borno. He actively encouraged the development of trade routes and markets fostering economic prosperity within the empire. This stimulated the growth of various industries and facilitated the exchange of goods and ideas with neighboring regions.
Additionally El-Kanemi’s administration prioritized agriculture and irrigation. He implemented innovative farming techniques and irrigation systems improving agricultural productivity and ensuring food security within the empire. This in turn led to population growth and the expansion of urban centers within Borno.
El-Kanemi’s contributions to Borno in the 19th century left a lasting impact on the region. His leadership and reforms not only strengthened the political and military stability of the Kanem-Borno Empire but also promoted the spread of Islam facilitated economic growth and improved agricultural practices. These developments laid the foundation for Borno’s continued cultural economic and political significance in the region.
(i) Limited resources: The British colonial administration in Nigeria had limited resources and manpower to govern a vast and diverse territory. Adopting indirect rule allowed the British to govern Nigeria by leveraging the existing indigenous administrative structures and traditional rulers thereby minimizing the need for large numbers of British officials.
(ii) Maintaining social stability: Indirect rule aimed to preserve existing social structures and hierarchies in Nigeria. By relying on traditional rulers to govern their own territories the British sought to avoid disrupting local power dynamics and potential resistance to colonial rule. This approach helped maintain social stability and prevent widespread unrest.
(iii) Cultural preservation: Indirect rule sought to preserve indigenous African customs and traditions. By working with traditional rulers the British allowed for the continuation of local laws customs and institutions which helped to maintain cultural identity and minimize cultural resistance to colonial rule.
(iv) Cost-effectiveness: Indirect rule was seen as a cost-effective way to administer colonial territories. By relying on existing indigenous administrative structures the British could reduce the need for extensive infrastructure and personnel thereby saving money and resources.
(v) Local collaboration: Indirect rule allowed the British to enlist the support of local authorities and rulers. By collaborating with traditional leaders the British could gain their loyalty and cooperation which facilitated the smooth administration of the colony and minimized resistance to colonial rule.
(vi) Familiarity with local conditions: Indigenous rulers possessed local knowledge and understanding of the customs languages and social dynamics of their territories. By allowing these rulers to maintain their positions of authority the British could benefit from their expertise and insights making governance more effective.
(i)The central legislative council: It was renamed the House of Representatives. The president was the Governor and it had 6 ex- official members. 136 representative members were through the regional houses and 6 special members were nominated by the Governor. The North sent 68 members while the West and East had 34 members which made up the 136 representatives.
(ii)The Central Executive Council: This was known as the council of ministers. The Governor was the president and there were6 official members, 12 ministers of which 4 represented each region. They were in charge of government departments and appointed by the governor on the recommendation of the regional legislature.
(iii)The Regional Legislature: The Northern and Western regions each had a bi-cameral House of Assembly and Chiefs. The Eastern region had only the power to make laws on certain issues like local matters, native courts, health, etc.
(iv)Regional Executive Council: Each region had an executive council. The Lieutenant Governor was the president and it had 5 official members and 9 ministers. They advised the governor but he could accept or reject their advice.
(v)The colony of Lagos was part of the Western region.
(vi)The three provinces were renamed, Western, Eastern and Northern regions.
(vii)The three chief commissioners for each province were renamed Lieutenant governors.
(i) Economic Development: Under the military regime Nigeria experienced significant economic growth. The government implemented policies to diversify the economy focusing on industries such as oil and agriculture. This led to a substantial increase in revenue and the establishment of infrastructure projects across the country.
(ii) Infrastructural Development: The military governments initiated various infrastructural projects that helped in modernizing Nigeria. Numerous roads bridges and highways were constructed improving transportation networks across the country. Additionally the government invested in the development of telecommunications power generation and water supply systems.
(iii) Agricultural Development: The military governments recognized the importance of agriculture in Nigeria’s economy and pursued policies to boost agricultural production. They implemented programs that encouraged mechanization improved irrigation techniques and promoted research and development in the agricultural sector. These initiatives increased food production and reduced dependency on imports.
(iv) Education and Healthcare: The military governments prioritized the improvement of education and healthcare systems. They increased funding for educational institutions constructed schools and universities and expanded access to education for previously marginalized communities. Similarly efforts were made to enhance healthcare services by establishing new clinics hospitals and vaccination programs.
(v) National Unity: The military regimes also focused on promoting national unity and integration in a diverse nation like Nigeria. They encouraged cultural exchanges initiated inter-ethnic dialogues and implemented policies to reduce regional disparities. These efforts played a crucial role in fostering a sense of nationhood and reducing ethnic tensions.
(vi) Foreign Relations: Military governments in Nigeria also made significant strides in foreign policy. They strengthened diplomatic relations with other African countries played an active role in regional and international organizations and pursued policies that enhanced Nigeria’s influence in global affairs. This helped in promoting Nigeria’s image and attracting foreign investments.