WAEC 2023 History Obj & Essay Answers Now Available




(i) Pottery shards
(ii) Stone tools
(iii) Ancient coins
(iv) Bone fragments
(v) Metal artifacts
(vi) Ceramic figurines
(vii) Clay tablets with inscriptions
(viii) Burial goods
(ix) Accumulations of discarded shellfish remains

(i) Site Destruction: Archaeological sites can be easily damaged or destroyed by natural processes, construction projects, looting, or even unintentional human activities. Once a site is destroyed, valuable historical and cultural information is lost forever.

(ii) Limited Resources: Archaeological research often requires substantial funding and resources. Limited financial support can hinder excavations, laboratory analysis, preservation efforts, and publication of findings, leading to incomplete or delayed research.

(iii) Ethical Dilemmas: Archaeologists face ethical challenges concerning the excavation and handling of human remains, sacred artifacts, and culturally sensitive materials. Balancing the pursuit of knowledge with respect for indigenous rights and cultural heritage can be complex and controversial.

(iv) Fragmentary Evidence: Archaeologists primarily work with fragments of the past, such as broken pottery, decayed organic materials, or incomplete structures. Reconstructing ancient societies from these fragments requires skill, interpretation, and a deep understanding of the context.

(v) Interpretive Bias: Archaeological interpretation is influenced by the cultural backgrounds, assumptions, and preconceptions of the researchers. This can introduce bias into the analysis, potentially distorting the understanding of past societies and their behaviors.

(vi) Limited Accessibility: Many archaeological sites are located in remote or politically unstable regions, making them difficult to access. This limits the ability of researchers to study and document these sites fully, resulting in gaps in our understanding of human history.

(vii) Repatriation and Cultural Heritage: The ownership and repatriation of cultural artifacts can be a contentious issue. Disputes arise when artifacts have been removed from their countries of origin and are now held in museums or private collections in other countries. Finding a balance between preservation and the rights of communities to their cultural heritage is an ongoing challenge.

(viii) Public Engagement and Awareness: Archaeology often struggles to engage and communicate with the wider public effectively. Limited public awareness and understanding of archaeological methods and discoveries can hinder support for research funding, preservation efforts, and the protection of archaeological sites.

(i) Autonomous Regional Governance: Non-centralized states in Nigeria often have autonomous regional governance structures. These regions have a level of self-governance and decision-making power, allowing them to manage their affairs to some extent.

(ii) Greater Resource Control: Non-centralized states have greater control over the resources within their boundaries. This includes natural resources such as oil, minerals, and agricultural products. They can negotiate and manage the exploitation of these resources and retain a larger share of the revenue generated.

(iii) Revenue Allocation: Non-centralized states have the authority to allocate and manage their own revenue. They can collect taxes, fees, and levies, and have the power to determine how these funds are spent within their jurisdiction.

(iv) Local Legislation: Non-centralized states can enact and enforce laws specific to their region. They have legislative bodies, such as state assemblies, which can pass laws and regulations that are applicable within their boundaries, as long as they do not conflict with federal laws.

(v) Independent Judiciary: Non-centralized states have their own judicial systems, with independent courts that can adjudicate legal matters within their jurisdiction. They can interpret and apply both state and federal laws within the scope of their authority.

(vi) Education Policies: Non-centralized states have the power to shape and implement their own education policies. They can establish educational institutions, develop curriculum guidelines, and make decisions regarding educational standards and practices.

(vii) Health Service Provision: Non-centralized states are responsible for the provision of healthcare services within their jurisdictions. They can establish and manage healthcare facilities, implement health policies, and regulate the healthcare sector to meet the specific needs of their population.

(viii) Infrastructure Development: Non-centralized states have the authority to plan, fund, and implement infrastructure projects within their boundaries. This includes the construction and maintenance of roads, bridges, power plants, water supply systems, and other essential infrastructure.

(ix) Cultural Preservation: Non-centralized states have the ability to promote and preserve their unique cultural heritage. They can develop cultural policies, support cultural institutions, and safeguard traditional practices, languages, and customs specific to their region.

(x) Local Economic Development: Non-centralized states can pursue economic development strategies tailored to their region’s needs and potentials. They can attract investments, promote local industries, and implement policies that stimulate economic growth and job creation within their jurisdiction.




(i) Competition for Power: The competition for power and leadership among the Hausa states was one of the major factors responsible for their disunity before1800. Each state was governed by an emir or sultan who wanted to maintain or extend their power, which sometimes led to conflicts with neighboring states. This competition for power and influence prevented the Hausa states from uniting under a common purpose

(ii) Religious Differences: Another factor that contributed to the disunity among the Hausa states was religious differences. While Islam was dominant in many of the states, some states still adhered to their traditional religions. This sometimes led to religious clashes and conflicts that further deepened the disunity among the states.

(iii) Ethnic Differences: The Hausa states were made up of different ethnic groups, each with their own culture, traditions, and language. This often led to misunderstandings and conflicts between the various ethnic groups and contributed to their disunity.

(iv) Economic Interests: Economic interests also played a role in the disunity among the Hausa states. Each state was interested in its own economic growth and development and often acted in ways that were detrimental to the economic interests of other states. This competition for economic resources and power created divisions among the states.

(v) Diplomatic Rivalries: Diplomatic rivalries and alliances between the different Hausa states also contributed to their disunity. Each state was interested in securing allies and forming alliances that would strengthen its own position, often at the expense of other states. These diplomatic rivalries further fueled conflicts and prevented the states from uniting under a common goal or purpose.


(i) Afonja
(ii) Alimi
(iii) Kosoko

(i) Political development: The wars helped shape the political landscape of Nigeria by leading to the emergence of powerful kingdoms and city-states such as Oyo, Ibadan and Ife.

(ii) Cultural preservation: The wars played a key role in preserving Yoruba culture, traditions and beliefs, which have been passed down from generation to generation.

(iii) Economic impact: The wars disrupted trade and commerce, resulting in the decline of some Yoruba towns and the rise of others.

(iv) Colonial influence: The wars paved the way for the eventual colonization of Nigeria by the British, as they took advantage of the political instability and fragmentation caused by the wars to establish their authority over the region.




(i) Oba’s Court: The Oba’s Court was the most important socio-political organization in Benin during the 19th century.It served as the seat of power and was responsible for governing the kingdom. The Oba was the head of the court and he held the most power in the kingdom. The Oba’s court was also responsible for preserving the kingdom’s culture and traditions

(ii) Eghaevbo N’ore: Eghaevbo N’ore was a council of elders that advised the Oba on matters of governance, including legal issues and the appointment of officials. The council was composed of highly revered and respected individuals who represented different lineages in the kingdom.

(iii) Ekine Society: The Ekine Society was a secret society that served as a social, religious, and political organization. Its members were men who had attained a certain level of success in society and were initiated into the society upon meeting certain criteria. The Ekine Society was known for its use of drums, dances, and other forms of cultural expression.

(iv) Iwebo: Iwebo was a society of women who played important roles in the governance of the kingdom. They performed various functions, including the collection of taxes, the maintenance of roads and other infrastructure, and the provision of social services. Iwebo also had a role in resolving disputes and promoting peace within the kingdom.

(v) Age Grade System: The Age Grade System was a socio-political organization that grouped individuals according to their age and provided a framework for social, economic, and political activities. Each age grade had specific roles and responsibilities, and individuals moved through the age grades as they matured. The age grade system served as a means of socializing young people into the norms and values of the kingdom and provided a platform for political participation.

(i) Advocacy against slavery: Christian missionaries actively spoke out against the institution of slavery, condemning its immorality and advocating for its abolition. They preached about the equality and dignity of all human beings, emphasizing the inherent worth of slaves.

(ii) Education and enlightenment: Missionaries established schools and educational institutions in Nigeria, providing slaves and freed individuals with opportunities for education. By imparting knowledge and critical thinking skills, they empowered individuals to question the legitimacy of slavery and understand their rights.

(iii) Conversion of slave owners: Through their religious teachings, missionaries sought to convert slave owners to Christianity, hoping to instill in them a sense of compassion, empathy, and respect for human life. This conversion often challenged the notion of slave ownership and promoted a more humane treatment of slaves.

(iv) Liberation of slaves: Missionaries actively participated in the liberation of slaves. They bought slaves from their owners, negotiated for their freedom, and provided shelter and support for freed individuals. In some cases, missionaries facilitated the establishment of self-sustaining communities for freed slaves.

(v) Promotion of indigenous leadership: Missionaries trained and educated indigenous leaders to take charge of their communities. By empowering local leaders, missionaries ensured the sustainability of their efforts against slavery and promoted self-governance among the people.

(vi) Documentation and reporting: Christian missionaries documented the horrors of the slave trade, including firsthand accounts of its brutality. They sent reports to their home countries, raising awareness and generating public support for the abolitionist movement.

(vii) Collaboration with abolitionist societies: Missionaries collaborated with abolitionist societies and organizations in Europe and the United States. They shared information, coordinated efforts, and leveraged international pressure to bring an end to the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

(viii) Cultural transformation: Through their teachings, missionaries fostered a cultural transformation that challenged the social acceptance of slavery. They emphasized the principles of equality, justice, and compassion, which gradually shifted societal attitudes and contributed to the eventual eradication of the slave trade.

(i) Preservation of Local Customs and Traditions: Indirect Rule allowed the British administrators to govern through existing indigenous institutions and rulers. This approach aimed to maintain local customs, traditions, and social structures, providing a sense of continuity for the Nigerian people.

(ii) Minimal Disruption of Local Governance: By employing traditional rulers and chiefs as intermediaries, the British authorities minimized disruptions to local governance structures. This approach helped to maintain stability and avoid significant upheavals that might have occurred with a more direct form of colonial rule.

(iii) Efficient Administrative System: The Indirect Rule system utilized existing native administrative structures, such as traditional councils and courts, to enforce British policies and laws. This approach was seen as efficient since it utilized local resources and knowledge, reducing the burden on the colonial administration.

(iv) Economic Development: The British authorities often relied on local elites to collect taxes and administer economic policies. This approach allowed the indigenous rulers and chiefs to retain some control over economic affairs and provided opportunities for them to participate in the colonial economy.

(v) Access to Education and Western Knowledge: Indirect Rule brought Western education to some parts of Nigeria through the establishment of schools by the colonial authorities. This provided some Nigerians with access to formal education, which could lead to improved opportunities in the colonial administration or other sectors.

(vi) Infrastructure Development: Under Indirect Rule, the British colonial administration invested in infrastructure projects like road construction, telecommunication networks, and health facilities in certain areas. This led to improved access to services and increased connectivity within the region.

(vii) Exposure to Modern Systems of Governance: The presence of British administrators and their interaction with traditional rulers exposed the Nigerians to modern systems of governance, legal frameworks, and bureaucratic structures. This exposure opened up avenues for some Nigerians to gain knowledge and experience that would later influence their involvement in post-colonial governance.

(viii) Recognition of Indigenous Authorities: Indirect Rule conferred authority and recognition on indigenous rulers and chiefs, which helped to maintain their prestige and status within their communities. This recognition provided some level of stability and continuity in local leadership, which was seen as advantageous by those who benefited from this arrangement.




(i) Pan-Africanism and Unity: Nigeria, like many other African nations, embraced the principles of pan-Africanism, which advocated for unity, solidarity, and cooperation among African countries. Nigeria recognized the importance of joining a continental organization that aimed to promote African unity, address common challenges, and work towards the liberation and progress of the African continent as a whole.

(ii) Decolonization and Self-Determination: At the time of Nigeria’s independence in 1960, many African countries were still under colonial rule. Joining the OAU was seen as a means to support the decolonization process and promote self-determination for African nations. Nigeria sought to align itself with other African countries in the pursuit of political independence, sovereignty, and the right to determine its destiny.

(iii) Regional Security and Stability: Nigeria, as one of the largest and most populous countries in Africa, recognized the importance of regional security and stability. By being a member of the OAU, Nigeria could actively participate in discussions, negotiations, and initiatives aimed at resolving conflicts, promoting peace, and maintaining stability across the continent. Nigeria has contributed troops and resources to various peacekeeping missions under the auspices of the OAU/AU.

(iv) Economic Integration and Development: Nigeria understood the potential benefits of regional economic integration for Africa’s development. Membership in the OAU provided Nigeria with a platform to engage in discussions on economic cooperation, trade facilitation, investment promotion, and infrastructure development at the continental level. Nigeria sought to leverage its resources, market size, and expertise to foster economic growth and development within Africa.

(v) Influence and Leadership: Nigeria, being one of Africa’s most influential and politically active countries, sought to exert its influence and play a leadership role within the OAU/AU. By actively participating in the organization, Nigeria could shape and contribute to the decision-making processes, advocate for its interests, and champion causes that aligned with its foreign policy objectives. Nigeria has held key leadership positions within the OAU/AU, including serving as the Chairperson of the organization.

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